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Most people know that good oral hygiene -- brushing, flossing, and regular dental visits -- is lixed to good health. Colorado State University microbiome researchers offer fresh evidence to support that conventional wisdom, by taking a close look at invisible communities of microbes that live in every mouth.

大多数人都知道良好的口腔卫生——刷牙、使用牙线和定期看牙——与健康息息相关。科罗拉多州立大学的微生物组研究人员通过仔细观察生活在每一个嘴巴里的看不见的微生物群落,为这一传统观点提供了新的证据。

The oral microbiome - the sum total of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, that occupy the human mouth -- was the subject of a crowd-sourced, citizen science-driven study by Jessica Metcalf''''s research lab at CSU and Nicole Garneau''''s research team at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Published in Scientific Reports, the study found, among other things, a correlation between people who did not visit the dentist regularly and increased presence of a pathogen that causes periodontal disease.

口腔微生物群是占据人类口腔的微生物,包括细菌和真菌的总和,是杰西卡·梅特卡夫在CSU的研究实验室和尼科尔·加诺在丹佛自然和科学博物馆进行的一项由人群来源的公民科学驱动为主题的研究。发表在《科学报告》上的这项研究发现,不经常看牙医的人与一种导致牙周疾病的病原体的增加之间存在相关性。



Back in 2015, paper-co-author Garneau and her team trained volunteer citizen scientists to use large swabs to collect cheek cells from museum visitors - a naturally diverse population -- who consented to the study. These trained citizen scientists helped collect swabs from 366 individuals -- 181 adults and 185 youth aged 8 to 17.

早在2015年,论文的合著者加诺和她的团队训练志愿者公民科学家使用大的棉签从博物馆游客——一个自然多样化的人群——收集面颊细胞,他们同意这项研究。这些训练有素的公民科学家帮助收集了366个人的样本,其中包括181名成年人和185名8至17岁的年轻人。

The original impetus for the study was to determine whether and to what extent the oral microbiome contributes to how people taste sweet things. In collecting this data, which was also reported in the paper, the researchers noted more significant data points around oral health habits.

这项研究的最初目的是确定口腔微生物群是否以及在多大程度上影响了人们品尝甜食的方式。在收集这些数据的过程中,研究人员发现了更多关于口腔健康习惯的重要数据。

To help translate the data, Garneau turned to Metcalf''''s team of experts at CSU. Burcham and the microbiome scientists employed sophisticated sequencing and analysis tools to determine which microbes were present in which mouths. Sequencing for the data was performed in collaboration with scientists in Rob Knight''''s group at University of California San Diego. A nutrition team from Michigan State University also brought in expertise on the importance of child and maternal relationships to the data analysis.

为了帮助翻译这些数据,加诺求助于麦特卡夫在加州州立大学的专家团队。伯彻姆和微生物组科学家使用了先进的测序和分析工具来确定哪些微生物存在于哪些口腔中。这些数据的排序是与加州大学圣地亚哥分校罗伯·奈特小组的科学家合作完成的。密歇根州立大学的一个营养学团队也在数据分析中引入了有关母婴关系重要性的专业知识。

"Together, we had a dream team for using community science to answer complicated questions about human health and nutrition, using state-of-the-art microbial sequencing and analysis," Garneau said.

加诺说:“我们共同组成了一个梦之队,利用先进的微生物测序和分析技术,利用社区科学来回答有关人类健康和营养的复杂问题。”

Flossing and regular dental care

使用牙线和定期的牙齿护理

The study grouped people who flossed or didn''''t floss (almost everyone said they brushed, so that wasn''''t a useful data point). Participants who flossed were found to have lower microbial diversity in their mouths than non-flossers. This is most likely due to the physical removal of bacteria that could be causing inflammation or disease.

这项研究将使用牙线或不使用牙线的人分组(几乎每个人都说他们使用牙线,所以这不是一个有用的数据点)。研究发现,用牙线清洁牙齿的人口腔内的微生物多样性比不使用牙线清洁牙齿的人要低。这很可能是由于物理上清除了可能导致炎症或疾病的细菌。

Adults who had gone to a dentist in the last three months had lower overall microbial diversity in their mouths than those who hadn''''t gone in 12 months or longer, and had less of the periodontal disease-causing oral pathogen, Treponema. This, again, was probably due to dental cleaning removing rarer bacterial taxa in the mouth. Youth tended to have had a dental visit more recently than adults.

与12个月或更长时间未看牙医的成年人相比,过去3个月去看牙医的成年人口腔微生物总体多样性较低,导致牙周疾病的口腔病原体密螺旋体也较少。这也可能是由于牙齿清洁清除了口腔中比较少见的细菌种类。年轻人看牙医的时间比老人要晚频繁。



"When you look at families who live together, you find they share more of those rare taxa, the bacteria that aren''''t found as often in higher abundances," Burcham explained. It was a data point that underscored the relevance of one''''s built environment in relationship to the microbial communities in our bodies.

“当你观察住在一起的家庭,你会发现他们共享更多的稀有类群,这些细菌在较高的丰度中不常见,”伯彻姆解释说。这是一个数据点,强调了一个人的建筑环境与我们体内微生物群落的相关性。

Working on the mouth study was fascinating, albeit outside Burcham''''s normal scope; he is usually focused on studying microbial ecology of decomposition.

研究口腔非常有趣,尽管超出了伯彻姆的正常研究范围;他通常专注于研究微生物分解生态学。

"I think how our lives are essentially driven by our microbiomes, and affected by our microbiomes, is interesting, no matter what system we''''re looking at," Burcham said.

伯彻姆说:“我认为,不管我们观察的是什么系统,我们的生活基本上是由我们的微生物群落驱动和影响的,这很有趣。”

The study was made possible by a Science Education Partnership Award from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health (Award #R250D021909).

这项研究是由美国国立卫生研究院国立普通医学科学研究所颁发的“科学教育伙伴奖”促成的(奖项号为R250D021909)。