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Democratic presidential candidate Andrew Yang wants to give cash to every American each month.

民主党总统参选人杨安泽希望每个月给每个美国人发放现金。

Susie Garza has never heard of Yang. But since February, she’s been getting $500 a month from a nonprofit in Stockton, California, as part of an experiment that offers something unusual in presidential politics: a trial run of a campaign promise, highlighting the benefits and challenges in real time.

苏西·加扎从未听说过杨。但自今年2月以来,她每月从加利福尼亚州斯托克顿的一家非营利机构免费拿到500美元,这是一项实验的一部分,该实验为美国的总统政治提供了一些不同寻常的东西:一项竞选承诺的试运行,实时突显出其中的好处和挑战。



Yang, a tech entrepreneur, has anchored his longshot bid with a proposal to give $1,000 in cash to every American, saying the payments will shield workers from the pain of certain job losses caused by automation. The idea has helped him win unexpected support and even muscle out some better-known candidates from the debate stages. His proposal isn’t too far off from one by U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris, one of the top contenders for the Democratic nomination, who has a proposal to give up to $500 a month to working families.

杨是一名科技企业家,他提出向每个美国人发放1000美元现金的提议,以此来支持自己不太可能实现的总统目标。他表示,这些现金将使工人免受自动化造成的失业痛苦。这个想法帮助他赢得了意想不到的支持,甚至把一些比他知名度更高的候选人挤出了辩论阶段。他的提议与民主党总统候选人提名热门候选人之一,美国参议员卡玛拉•哈里斯的提议相去不远。哈里斯提议每月向工薪家庭发放至多500美元补助。

Stockton, once known as the foreclosure capital of the country and for one of the nation’s largest municipal bankruptcies, is a step ahead of both candidates. In February, the city launched the Stockton Economic Empowerment Demonstration, a pilot program spearheaded by a new mayor and financed in part by the nonprofit led by Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes. The city chose 125 people who live in census tracts at or below the city’s median household income of $46,033. They get the money on a debit card on the 15th of each month.

斯托克顿一度被称为美国止赎之都,也是美国最大的破产城市之一。今年2月,该市发起了斯托克顿经济赋权示范,这是一个试点项目,由一位新市长牵头,Facebook联合创始人克里斯·休斯领导的非营利组织提供了部分资金。纽约市选择了125名居住在人口普查区的人,他们的家庭收入普遍低于这个城市的平均水平。他们每个月15日可以用借记卡取到这笔钱。



“Do people notice you are there? Those things are correlated to health and well-being,” said Stacia Martin-West, a researcher at the University of Tennessee who is working on the program along with Amy Castro-Baker at the University of Pennsylvania.

“人们注意到你在那儿吗?”田纳西州大学的研究人员斯塔西亚马丁-韦斯特说。

The money has made Jovan Bravo happier. The 31-year-old Stockton native and construction worker is married and has three children, ages 13, 8 and 4. He said he didn’t see enough of his children when he worked six days a week to pay the bills.

钱让约万·来沃更开心了。这位31岁的斯托克顿本地建筑工人已婚,有三个孩子,年龄分别为13岁、8岁和4岁。他说,当他每周工作六天来支付开支时,他没有足够多的时间陪孩子。

That changed when he started getting $500 a month. Now he only works one Saturday a month. He uses the other Saturdays to take his kids to the amusement park and ride bikes with them in the park.

但当他开始每月拿到500美元时,情况发生了变化。现在他一个月只用工作一个星期六。他利用其他的星期六带他的孩子去游乐园,和他们一起在公园里骑自行车。

“It’s made a huge difference,” he said. “Just being able to spend more time with the wife and kids, it brings us closer together.”

“这产生了巨大的影响,”他说。“只要能有更多的时间陪伴妻子和孩子,就能让我们之间变得更亲密。”

Stockton officials do not release the names of the program participants. They arrange interviews with journalists only for those who volunteer to discuss their experiences.

斯托克顿的官员没有公布该项目参与者的姓名。他们只安排那些自愿讨论自己经历的志愿者接受采访。



The latest momentum comes with the help of the technology industry, which is grappling with how to prepare for the job losses likely to come with automation and artificial intelligence.The tech connection has drawn criticism from left-leaning labor unxs skeptical of the industry’s motives.

最新的势头得益于科技行业,该行业正在努力应对自动化和人工智能可能带来的失业。与科技行业的联系招致了对该行业动机持怀疑态度的左翼工会的批评。

“We think the future of work should be defined by working people, not tech billionaires,” said Steve Smith, spokesman for the California Labor Federation, a group of 1,200 unxs and a reliable ally for some of the state’s most liberal policies. “If there are no jobs available, you are pretty much stuck with your $1,000 a month check while the CEO of the tech company that automated you out of a job is being paid a billion dollars a year.”

加州劳工联合会是一个由1,200个工会组成的团体,也是该州一些最新政策的可靠盟友。该会发言人史蒂夫·史密斯表示:“我们认为,工作的未来应该由劳动者来定义,而不是由科技行业的亿万富翁来定义。”“如果没有工作机会,你就只能靠每月1000美元的薪水过活,而让你自动离职的那家科技公司的首席执行官,年薪却高达10亿美元。”

Other critics note that the programs can chip away at the social safety net. Yang’s plan requires recipients to decline food stamps and some other government assistance.

其他批评人士指出,这些计划可能会削弱社会保障体系。杨的计划要求受助人拒绝接受食品券和其他一些政府援助。

There’s also the question of how to pay for it.

还有一个问题是如何支付。

Stockton’s program, giving 125 people $500 per month for 18 months, will cost just over $1.1 million. Harris’ plan, which covers working families making up to $100,000 annually, would cost about $275 billion per year, according to the Tax Policy Center. To pay for it, she says she would repeal some of the 2017 GOP tax cuts and impose new taxes on corporations.

斯托克顿的项目为期18个月,每月为125人提供500美元,费用将略高于110万美元。根据税收政策中心的数据,哈里斯的计划每年将花费约2,750亿美元,覆盖年收入不超过10万美元的工薪家庭。为了支付这笔费用,她表示,她将废除共和党2017年的部分减税政策,并对企业征收新税。

Yang’s plan, which covers every adult in the United States, would cost $2.8 trillion per year. He would impose a new tax on businesses’ goods and services while shrinking some other government assistance programs. Representatives for Yang and Harris did not respond to interview requests.

而杨的计划覆盖了美国的每一个成年人,每年花费将达到2.8万亿美元。他将对企业的商品和服务征收新税,同时缩减其他一些政府援助项目。杨和哈里斯的助理没有回应采访请求。



“She goes, ‘Because you’re blessed,’” Garza said. “And I just left it at that.”

“项目主管她说,‘这是因为你有福气,’”加扎说:“那我就信了吧。”